Updated 11/14/07 22:28
VITAMINCITY.com'S GUIDE TO VITAMINS MINERALS & SUPPLEMENTS
Provided free as an informational guide to VitaminCity,com customers.
NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SIGNS, BENEFITS & NATURAL SOURCES
Vitamin A - (beta carotene is a precursor to vitamin A) Night blindness, itching, dry skin, loss of sense of taste. Powerful anti-oxidant. Natural sources: fruits & vegetables, eggs & diary products, liver, fish oils. Fat soluble. RDA 5000iu
Vitamin B1 - (thiamin or thiamin chloride) Fatigue, poor appetite, tingling in legs, depression. Natural sources: yeast, vegetables, whole wheat, peanuts, oatmeal, milk, rice husks. Water Soluble. RDA 1.5mg
Vitamin B2 - (riboflavin or vitamin G) Cracks at corners of mouth, sore tongue, eyes sensitive to light. Low riboflavin (B2) levels have been reported in 81% of patients with cataracts. It is not known if this is a cause or result of the cataract disorder. Natural sources: milk, cheese, yeast, liver, kidney. Water Soluble. RDA 1.7mg
Vitamin B3, Niacin - (nicotinic acid/niacin, niacinamide/nicotinamide) Weakness, skin rash, memory loss, irritability, insomnia. Natural sources: whole wheat, yeast, green vegetables, beans, lean meats & liver. Water Soluble. RDA 18mg
Vitamin B5 - Calcium Pantothenate. Natural Sources: Yeast.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) - Fatigue, anemia, nerve dysfunction, irritability. Controversy concerning potential toxic side effects from large doses during pregnancy. Water Soluble. RDA 2mg
Vitamin B9, Folic Acid - Pteroylglutamic Acid, - Anemia, intestinal problems, pale & shiny tongue. Water Soluble. Natural Sources: Yeast. RDA 400mcg
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) - Anemia, weakness, fatigue, red sore tongue, nerve degeneration. Water Soluble. Natural Sources: Liver, yeast. RDA 3mcg
Vitamin B13 - Calcium Orotate, Orotic Acid
Vitamin B15 - Calcium Pangamate
Vitamin B17 - Laetrile. Natural Sources: Appicot, peach or plum pits.
Vitamin C - Bruise easily, slow wound healing, tooth/gum defects, aching joints, scurvy. Water Soluble. Natural Sources: Fruits. RDA 60mg
Vitamin D - Soft bones/teeth, spontaneous fractures, bone curvature. May affect hearing. Fat Soluble. Natural Sources: Fish oils. RDA 400iu
Vitamin E - Poor muscle/circulatory performance. Hemolytic Anemia & degenerative changes in muscle. Protects cell membranes against lipid peroxidation & destruction. Natural Sources: Vegetable oils, dark green leafy vegetables. Fat Soluble. RDA 30iu
Vitamin F - Acne, allergies, dry skin, brittle hair & nails, eczema. Natural Sources: vegetable oils & sunflower seeds. RDA none
Vitamin H, Biotin - Lassitude, anorexia, depression, muscle pains, dermatitis & hyperesthesia of the skin. Water Soluble. Natural Sources: yeast, milk, egg yolks, liver & kidney. RDA 200mcg
Vitamin K (Menadione) - Diarrhea, increased tendency to hemorrhage. Fat Soluble. Natural Sources: Alfalfa. RDA none
Vitamin P - Bleeding gums, colds, eczema. Natural Sources: skin & pulp of fruits. RDA none
Vitamin T - Natural Source: Sesame seed.
Vitamin U - Natural Source: Cabbage extract.
Alanine - Regulates sugar metabolism. Helps with hypoglycemia, immune system & kidney stones.
Alpha Amylase - Digestive enzyme. Carb blockers work by inhibiting this enzyme.
Alpha Lipoic Acid
Arginine - Amino Acid synthesized in the body in quantities sufficient for body maintenance in the adult. During periods of growth, synthesis may not be adequate. (essential for growth & nonessential for maintenance)
Aspartic Acid - Helps with the immune system, endurance & eliminates ammonia from the body.
Carnitine - Converts fat into energy. Helpful for hypoglycemia, PMS, angina, liver, kidney & diabetes. Improves weight loss, better mental function, eliminates cravings, increases energy.
Choline - Growth problems, impaired liver & kidney function. Essential for normal fat & carbohydrate metabolism. RDA - none
CoEnzyme 1, (NADH)
CoEnzyme A - The catalyst that initiates all other enzymatic and hormonal biochemical reactions in the cells including coenzyme Q10 and NADH.
Gamma Butyric Acid (GABA) - Neurotransmitter that may affect the release of growth hormone.
Glutathione - Synthesized from glutamic acid, cysteine & glycine. Helps lessen the side effects of chemotherapy & radiation. Anti-tumor agent.
Glycine - Used to produce glycogen & activate glucose from the liver. Helps heal the prostate gland.
Histidine - Amino Acid obtained from food during growth periods & is essential for children. Synthesized by the body in adults & is non essential for adults.
Inositol - (Hexahydroxyeyelohexane) Hair loss, constipation, eye abnormalities, high cholesterol, growth retardation. RDA none
Isoleucine - Amino Acid used to manufacture other biochemicals, some of which are used in energy production. Metabolized in a series of steps to produce simple acids. Required for hemoglobin production.
Lecithin - Phospholipid found in animal tissue. Reduces cholesterol levels, helps dissolve arterial plaque & yellow skin plaque caused by fatty deposits. Helps lower blood pressure, produces alertness, fights infection by increasing gamma globulin in the blood. Helps skin conditions such as eczema, acne & psoriasis, fills out & softens thin, dry wrinkled aging skin. Helps in the assimilation of vitamin A & E, used with vitamin E it has reduced the need for insulin in some diabetes cases.
Leucine - (Alpha-amino-isobutyl acetic acid) Amino Acid essential for growth & metabolism.
Linoleic Acid - Deficiency indicated by symptoms of dermatitis, eczema & psoriasis. Foods rich in linoleic acid: Wheat germ, Vegetable Oils & Nuts.
Lycopene - Twice as effective as beta carotene in eliminating free radicals.
Lysine - Amino Acid which regulates the absorption of calcium & the formation of collagen. The production of collagen by lysine is controlled by vitamin C. Natural sources: peanuts, grain cereals.
Melatonin - Hormone produced by the pineal gland in mammals. Function is not Known. New research indicates that it has the effect of increasing longevity.
Methionine - Amino Acid required for growth & metabolism. Prevents excessive fat accumulation in the liver by increasing lecithin production. Natural sources: soybeans, legumes, peanuts.
MSM (Methyl Sulfonylmethane)
Ornithine - Acts as a muscle builder & increases the effectiveness of arginine.
Pantothenic Acid - (vitamin B5) Weakness, depression, burning feet, poor resistance to infection, skin abnormalities, dizzy spells, retarded growth, digestive disorders. Natural sources: eggs, yeast, kidney, whole grains, wheat, bran, peas, molasses. Water Soluble. RDA 7mg
PABA - (para aminobenzoic acid) Constipation, depression, fatigue, headaches, irritability, eczema, anemia. May cause nausea & diarrhea in some people. May cause an allergic reaction in some people who use it in suntan lotion. Natural sources: whole grains, wheat germ, bran, brown rice, yeast, liver, kidney. RDA none
Phenyalanine - Amino Acid used by the brain to manufacture a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine which is involved in learning & memory.
Pycnogenol - Powerful antioxidant complex that scavenges free radicals. Strengthens capillaries & reduces swelling in the legs & ankles. Prevents the blood platelets from adhering to artery walls. Effective against hay fever & allergies. Known as "the skin cosmetic in a pill."
Proline - Helps in wound healing & learning ability.
Taurine - Used to treat some forms of epilepsy by controlling seizures. It is found in muscle, heart & central nervous system tissues.
Threonine - (alpha-amino-beta-hydroxy butyric acid) Essential amino Acid which is an important constituent of collagen, elastin & enamel protein. Natural sources: rice & corn.
Tryptophan - Essential amino Acid which is a component of casein & other proteins. Affects serotonin levels in the brain that controls sleep & moods. Serotonin is important in the transmission of nerve impulses across nerve cell connections. Vitamin B6 is required for the metabolism of tryptophan. Used as an anti depressant. Has been used to control sleep disorders, migraine headaches & enhance the immune system. Required for normal growth & development. Natural sources: corn, rice, animal & fish protein. May cause nausea & vomiting in high doses. No longer available in the United States.
Valine - Essential amino acid which is a component of many proteins. Essential for normal growth in infants & nitrogen balance in adults.
MINERAL DEFICIENCY SIGNS
Arsenic - Although found throughout the body it is very toxic.
Boron - A non metallic element found in boric acid & borax. Assists in calcium absorption, preventing osteoporosis. Relieves menopause symptoms by helping to make estrogen. Helps to make testosterone & estrogen.
Cadmium - Salts are poisonous.
Calcium - Bells Palsy, Osteoporosis, Heart palpitations, hypertension, insomnia, PMS, muscle cramps, tooth/bone weakening, receding gums high blood pressure. RDA 800-1000mg
Chlorine - Impaired digestion, loss of hair & teeth, derangement of fluid levels in the body.
Chromium - Poor glucose tolerance, a condition similar to diabetes, arterial plaque build up. Overdose causes a disagreeable taste in the mouth, pain, diarrhea, collapse, cramping, uremia & death. RDA 50-200mcg
Cobalt - Essential element in vitamin B12. Stimulates the production of red blood cells. Overdose may cause death in children. In adults it may cause anorexia, nausea, Vomiting, enlarged thyroid & deafness.
Copper - Anemia, fatigue, weakness, bone changes, graying hair, skin wrinkles, varicose veins, aneurysms. Is a catalyst in the synthesis of hemoglobin. Influences iron absorption & mobilization from the liver & other tissue stores. Plays a crucial role in respiration. RDA 2-3mg
Fluorine - Necessary for hard teeth & bones. However, 2 to 8 ppm in drinking water will cause discoloration & pitting of teeth. Above 8 ppm arthritis like symptoms appear called bone flourosis.
Germanium - Not known
Iodine - Enlarged thyroid gland. RDA 150mcg
Iron - Fatigue, weakness, anemia, brittle fingernails. RDA 10-18mg Lead - Causes nervous system dysfunction, poor concentration, fatigue, decreased intelligence.
Lithium - Nervous & mental disorders.
Magnesium - Growth failure, nervousness, anger, confusion. RDA 300-400mg
Manganese - Poor growth, reproductive & motor abnormalities. RDA 2.5-5mg
Mercury - Very toxic silver liquid metal.
Molybdenum - Can interfere with copper absorption. Deficiency symptoms: poor growth, appetite & shortened life span.
Phosphorus - Continuous thirst, dry skin, weakness, poor reflexes. RDA 800-1200mg
Potassium - Irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness. RDA 1875-5625mg
Rare Earth Elements - Europium, Lanthanum, Neodymium, Praseodymium, Samarium, Thulium, Ytterbium . Doubles life span in animals.
Selenium - Anemia, heart enlargement, irregular heartbeat, cardio myopathy, liver or age spots. RDA 50-200mcg
Silicon - Wrinkling of skin, thinning or loss of hair, poor bone development soft, brittle nails.
Silver, Colloidal - A suspension of silver in water. Silver is an anti bacterial which kills about 650 known disease organisms & is non toxic.
Sodium - Appetite loss, acidosis, muscle shrinkage, gas, vomiting, weight loss, dehydration. RDA 1100-3300mg
Sulfur - Found in all tissues. Deficiency symptoms unknown. Sulfur containing foods: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk & legumes. RDA none
Tin - Male pattern baldness, deafness in severe cases.
Vanadium - Low blood sugar or diabetes. May be involved in lipid & catecholamine metabolism. The dietary intake of vanadium averages about 4mg/day. Estimated requirements for adults are 0.1 to 0.3mg/day.
Zinc - Loss of sense of smell & taste, poor growth & wound healing. RDA 15mg This guide is for informational and not prescriptive purposes. The use of certain supplements & herbs may cause allergic reactions in some people.
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